By: Jörg Breuning
Extensive green roofs are a thin layer of high performance components that allow a wide range of plants to grow on them. These plants have adapted over thousands of years to extremely harsh environments and are typically found in alpine regions, on natural rock debris (scree), deserts or tundra. Besides the extreme climate conditions in these areas, there is a very inconsistent supply of water or lack of water retention because of missing components in the soil (no fines, no organic).
In other words, these are typically locations where plants have to be very specialized. Once they have adapted, they are awarded by less competition of other plants - plants that require deeper, richer soils with a fine granular distribution line or high organic content.
Plants from these extreme conditions have not learned to compete with plants that we typically prefer for our gardens or our farms. Experienced horticulturists and plant collectors understand very well what it takes to grow these survivors, in locations other than their natural habitat. These experts are able to create an environment that supports these plants to prosper. These man-made environments are an example of modern green roof technology via extensive green roofs. Natural coarse, porous aggregates (pumice, lava rock) prove to be the most successful way to accomplish a proper environment. The porosity of the materials allows high water retention with simultaneously high air content. Also, this can be done very inexpensively and on a large scale. Modern green roof technology is engineered to ensure that every raindrop will penetrate the this soil layer immediately - soils with high organic content take too long for water to penetrate, resulting in standing water and consequently erosion.
Some people may try to get around some of nature's principals, essentially reinventing the wheel in regards of extensive green roofs. They may also try and maximize other potential benefits (including personal profits), but end up sacrificing something else and in the worst case plants will suffer and possibly die.
The plants, whether they were intentionally planted or not, are an indicator for the performance of any green roof system. If any extensive green roof system becomes high maintenance, requiring irrigation or extra nutrients, the whole purpose of the green roof is defeated. Understanding these complex synergetic effects don't take a PhD, green roof professional training, or the internet - it takes decades of experience in the field, the patience of gardeners and common sense.
Modern green roof technology - as described in the FLL guideline - combines all these decades of experiences and makes things as simple as possible for novice green roof applicators - but it sure doesn't try to simplify the process. Einstein had some good advice on the subject, "Make things as simple as possible, but not simpler."
Jörg Breuning welcomes people who want to learn from decades of green roof experience - email@example.com